Big News – YouTube Launches “YouTube TV”

YouTube Announces YouTube TV, A New Live TV Streaming Service

YouTube TV has been rumored for years, and it’s finally here, the company announced today. The service launches in the next couple months in select markets in the U.S. It will cost $35/month with no contract. That $35 will get you access to a suite of stations, including ABC, NBC, CBS, Fox, ESPN, CW, Disney, CNBC, USA, NatGeo, and others. YouTube TV will also include YouTube Red’s 28 original series. The service will include unlimited cloud DVR space, which is nice.

In a small footnote, YouTube also announced something incredible: People are watching 1 Billion hours of YouTube per day. That is an insane number.

What This Means for Marketers and Advertisers

youtube tv

Even though YouTube TV is a paid service, it will still be ad-supported (just like regular TV). Running effective ads on YouTube TV is going to become an essential part of any marketing strategy. What is appealing about running ads on YouTube TV is that you’ll be able to be much more targeted than you can on TV, with much smaller budgets. Imagine running a sport apparel startup, and now being able to run ads during live NFL or NBA games? It’s going to be fantastic, so get ready! As Zuckerberg recently stated, video content is the future. YouTube obviously agrees.

Want to run a video advertising campaign? Send us a message!

17 Creative Snapchat Campaigns from Brands to Inspire Your Snap Strategy

Last updated: February 28, 2017.

Snapchat is blowing up right now. Their recent IPO filing stated that they have over 160 million daily active users. And these users are HIGHLY engaged. Most users consume every post they see. Snap also announced that their average user spends 25-30 minutes on the app every day. And they command 41% of the coveted 18-34 age demographic. Humans only have enough time to dedicate to 5-7 apps a day, and Snapchat is quickly rising to the top. To stand out on Snap, you must be fun, creative, and engaging. To help get you started, here are 16 creative Snapchat campaigns from different brands to inspire your strategy! Want to get started with Snap Ads? Contact us today!

  1. Taco Bell – Cinco de Mayo

Taco Bell got a lot of press when they created a filter for Cinco de Mayo. Here’s what that looked like:

taco bell snapchat

The filter performed extremely well. It was viewed 224 Million times. That’s an absolutely incredible number. They paid an estimated $750,000 for 24 hours of that filter. That works out to be 0.3 cents per view. Not three cents. Three tenths of one cent! That’s insane. It paid off though. People thoroughly enjoyed playing with the filter and it surely helped increase Taco Bell’s sales.

  1. X-Men: Apocalypse – Movie Promotion

X-Men did a massive takeover on May 23, to help promote the release of the new X-Men: Apocalypse movie. They didn’t just create one sponsored filter, they created ALL of them. Every filter, for the entire day on Snapchat, was related to X-Men. Analytics haven’t been released yet, but if their numbers mirror those of Taco Bell, they would have received around 1.5 Billion views!

xmen

 

  1. Sphero from Star Wars – Toy Launch

Star Wars utilized influencers on Snapchat to promote their new toy, Sphero, during the holiday season. One of the influencers they worked with, Shaun McBride, gets 2 million Snapchat views every day. According to the Wall Street Journal, the toy sold out in a matter of hours and their campaign got 10 million views. Check out one of their stories here:

Working with influencers on Snapchat is a must. They know their followers best and can often help your brand create fun, engaging content that delivers results.

  1. Terminator: Genisys – Movie Promotion

To promote the release of the new Terminator movie last year, a custom filter was created. Users were able to overlay the filter onto themselves or their pets. Smartly, Arnold Schwarzenegger also promoted this on Facebook. His Facebook post about the custom Snapchat filter received 3,000 shares and 55,000 likes. Cross-promoting onto other platforms is a good way to increase your organic reach with not much extra effort.

terminator-snapchat

 

  1. The MTV VMAs – Behind the Scenes

During the 2015 VMAs, MTV did a Live Story on Snapchat. This allowed anyone in the area to post pictures and videos to that Live Story, for all to see. Celebrities and audience members shared hilarious behind-the-scenes footage onto the story. About 10 million people tuned in to watch the VMAs on TV, and about 12 million people viewed the story on Snapchat! And at a much cheaper production cost.

       6. Mondelez – A Candy Competition

Mondelez makes delectable candy bars. To increase brand awareness and sales, they created a competition on Snapchat. To enter the contest you had to snap a photo of their chocolate bar, modify it using Snapchat’s drawing tools, and send it to the TIMEOUTAU Snapchat account. The winner of the competition won $10,000! Mondelez also showcased some of the best creations on a website. Mondelez’s idea to create a microsite to enhance the competition was a great way to increase awareness and increase customer loyalty (and product sales).

mondelez

 

  1. GrubHub – Hiring

GrubHub is a cool online food ordering company. They used Snapchat to look for an intern with “Snapchat Skillz”. They used the image sequence below to recruit applicants to grow their company. Very creative!

grubhub snapchat hiring

 

  1. World Wildlife Fund – #LastSelfie

The World Wildlife Fund used a Snapchat campaign to raise awareness about different endangered species. They came up with the creative #LastSelfie hashtag campaign that also allowed them to promote the cause on other social platforms. Check out the video here:

  1. DJ Khaled – Snapchat All-Star

DJ Khaled is a Snapchat all-star. He’s not your typical brand, but he is increasing his celebrity presence on Snapchat, and brands can learn A TON from what he’s doing on the platform. His snaps are attracting 3-4 million viewers each. He has coined some fun mantras like “bless up” and “keys to wisdom”. His content is extremely shareable. Check out a compilation here:

  1. Burberry – Spring Sneak Peak

To create some extra hype for their Spring 2016 Fashion Show, Burberry revealed their newest line of clothes through a series of snaps. They also produced pictures and videos featuring their designers and models. They also live-snapped the actual show, piggybacking off the hype they previously created.

burberry snapchat

 

  1. Major League Soccer – Player Takeovers

MLS dedicated an entire week to Snapchat takeovers. A “takeover” is when someone else takes over and runs your Snapchat account. So each day, MLS handed over their account to a new soccer star. The stars promoted this on their own accounts leading up to their turn, and then created fun, engaging content on the MLS account on their day. Takeovers are a great way to build your Snapchat following.

  1. Target – Holiday Geofilters

Target has been using geofilters around different holiday events. They target these geofilters around their physical stores to help increase brand awareness and sales. This is an easy, fun campaign idea that any brand can use to succeed on Snapchat.

target-geofilters

 

    13. Chubbies Shorts – Behind the Scenes

Chubbies Shorts is one of the most engaging brands on Snapchat (and all of social media and email, really). They constantly make me laugh out loud. They have an ongoing Behind the Scenes type campaign going. They mix in giveaways, stop motion, jokes, pranks, and more. They show how to effectively make content fun and memorable on a consistent basis. Check them out!

IMG_4457IMG_4458

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14. Rocky Horror Picture Show

Fox recently did a remake of the classic, “Rocky Horror Picture Show”. Fox partnered with Snapchat to create a trio of Snapcode activations that went live during the telecast. This is the first time anything like this has ever been done. The two companies partnered directly on this project. Fox ran Snap ads and a custom lens leading up to the telecast, and then offered more on the day of. Take a look below…

rocky-horror

15. Netflix and Gilmore Girls

Gilmore Girls is launching four new episodes exclusively on Netflix in a few weeks. To build awareness for the launch, Netflix printed actual cups and distributed a total of 10,000 cups to a group of 200 coffee shops around the country. Each cup had a snap code, and when scanned pulled up the image below. The logistics behind a campaign like this can be complicated, but there are great lessons to learn here. A campaign with a smaller budget can still produce similar results with targeted geofilters around brick and mortar locations.

netflix-snap

16. Budweiser Super Bowl Ad

Budweiser, always on the cutting edge when it comes to advertising, launched a Snapchat advertising campaign for the 24 hours leading up to the Super Bowl. The Snap Ad was actually a game you could play, and it was amazing. It was a mini-football game within the app. You could run different plays with funny, on-brand names. If you won, you unlocked an exclusive filter to use. This level of innovation and ingenuity isn’t possible for all brands. But if you have the budget for this type of advertising, it is incredibly effective. See more here.

17. Lucky Charms

Lucky Charms just ran this Snap Ad campaign during The Bachelor episode on Snapchat Discover. It was a short video ad that showed a woman fall in love with a man based on a relationship of Lucky Charms. Very on-brand, and very targeted placement as well. A great example of how to do effective marketing on Snapchat.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Have any questions? Tweet me! Want custom Snapchat geofilters for your company? Contact us today!

New Facebook Shoppable Feed Ads

Facebook Tests New Shoppable Feed Ads; Also Announces New Ads in Video Content

Facebook started testing new product ads a couple weeks ago. These ads allow retailers and ecommerce shops to show off multi-product imagery within the Facebook news feed. This is the latest innovation to Facebook’s ad product, which remains the leader in the social advertising space. Facebook released Dynamic Product Ads a couple years ago, and this is the evolution of that.

The new Facebook Ad format lets advertisers use multi-product imagery alongside product-specific units in the same ad. Take a look at the image below to see how they look.

Facebook Shoppable Feed Ads

Facebook Shoppable Feed Ads

This new ad format seems to be a response to Google’s Shopping campaigns on Adwords, which debuted five years ago.

On Facebook, though, we can be much more interest- and behavior-based with the ad targeting. It will be interesting to see how these continue to evolve in the future, along with Facebook’s new Canvas ads.

We have tested these with a sampling of our clients, and the early results have been absolutely fantastic. Interested in getting a campaign going for your brand? Contact us today!

In other news, Facebook officially announced that “eligible publishers” can now make money from in-stream video ads on their own websites and apps through Audience Network. On Facebook itself, they are also beta testing “Ad Breaks” in Facebook Live video on a selection of profiles and pages.

Facebook continues to push video content, especially premium video, to compete with YouTube. This is a big step in that direction.

WhatsApp Launches “Status”, A Snapchat Clone

Facebook Copies Snapchat Yet Again…

Facebook owns WhatsApp, the popular messaging app that has 1.2 Billion monthly users around the world who send over 60 Billion messages every day. Crazy numbers. Anyway, WhatsApp just launched “Status“, which is a blatant Snapchat clone (see a timeline of Facebook’s Snapchat clones here).

WhatsApp embedded their new Status feature as a tab in their app. Users can now share decorated photos, videos, or GIFs that disappear after 24 hours. This is obviously another stab at Snapchat, showing that Facebook wants to do everything it can to stave off Snap’s growth.

What Does This Mean For You?

Regardless of your thoughts on Facebook’s copycat strategy, this potentially opens up a new social advertising opportunity for marketers. We believe that companies will soon be able to run ads in between “Statuses” just as we can now run Snap Ads in between Snapchat Stories. Instagram Stories ads will be coming very soon as well. So, stay on top of it. New advertising platforms always provide the best arbitrage opportunities for greater ROI on ad spend.

whatsapp status - snapchat clone

Snap Ads – The Complete Guide

The Complete Guide to Snap Ads

This is a concise, but complete, guide to the ins and out of Snap Ads. We share minimum ad spend numbers, fees, targeting, etc. If you have any questions, contact us.

Last updated: February 20, 2017.

snap ads management

Snap Ads Details:

  • Minimum Ad Spend – $10,000/month (month to month contract) [Note: Options available for budgets under $10k]
  • Snap Ads Management Fee – 20% of total ad spend (lower if spend is $30k+)
  • Countries Available – United States, UK, Canada, Australia, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Italy, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Saudi Arabia, UAE, & Turkey
  • Targeting Options – Location, Gender, Age, Interests (See full list of current interest targeting options below)
  • Ad Reporting Metrics – Impressions, click rate, swipe-up rate, video views (reporting views to 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%)
  • Tracking Options – Vanity URLs, UTM tags, mobile-friendly landing page
  • Destination Options – Video views, App installs (swipe-up leads to app install page), Web views (swipe-up leads to landing page of your choice)
  • Ad Creative Options – Video only for now (click here for video specs)

Are you interested in starting a campaign on Snapchat? Then you’ve come to the right place. We’re your team from creative and strategy, to execution and management. Click the the link below and let’s get you started on making more money. It’s a snap!

Snap Ad interest targeting options:

“Activities/Sports”
Adventure Sports, Fitness, Snow Sports, Running, Sports, Motor Sports, Football, Baseball, Basketball, Golf, College Football, Hockey, Combat Sports, Soccer, Tennis, Beach & Watersports, Skates/Bikes/Boards
“Lifestyles/Hobbies”
Arts & Culture, Beauty, Reading, Fashion & Style, Autos & Vehicles, Nightlife, Investing & Entrepreneurship, Food, Technology & Gadgets, Travel, Women’s Lifestyle, Math & Science, Home Decor, Men’s Lifestyle, Outdoors & Nature, College Life, Streaming Video, DIY, Hip Trends, Pets & Animals, Fast Food Junkies, Cooking, Parenting & Family, Science Fiction & Fantasy, Green Living, Photography
“Music”
Music, Country Music, Concerts & Festivals, Indie Music, Dance & EDM Music, Pop Music, Urban & Hip-Hop Music
“News/Entertainment”
Film & TV, Comedy, Reality TV, News, Business News, Celebrity News, Political News, Video Games, Console Games

Check out two Snap Ads case studies below!

snap ads case studies

Two New Unique Snap Ad Campaigns

Jack in the Box and Chick-Fil-A Step Up Their Snap Ad Chops

In yet another reminder of what you can do when it comes to social advertising, Jack in the Box and Chick-Fil-A launched truly unique Snap Ad campaigns this week.

Chick-Fil-A launched a VR ad that allowed you to play with glasses that were mounted to a cow. How amazing and hilarious.

Jack in the Box came up with a fun multiple choice interactive game for their Snapchat advertising campaign, and once you finished the game you won a coupon that you could show to a cashier for a discount.

THIS is how you do effective marketing  :).

First, Chick-Fil-A…

chick-fil-a snap ad

Chick-Fil-A Snapchat ad

And now Jack in the Box…

jack in the box snap ad

Jack in the Box Snap Ad

How and Why Your Small Business Should be Using Snapchat in 2017

 

Last updated: February 16, 2017. Five minute read.

Small businesses have avoided Snapchat for a variety of reasons and we get that, but it’s time to set that all aside and join the advertising revolution. Snapchat just launched an update with massive implications for advertising and if you haven’t figured out your brand on Snapchat, it’s time. We’ll talk about what Snapchat is and isn’t, why you should be using it, and 6 ways to effectively establish and position your brand. Snapchat is quickly becoming the best way to connect to the millennial demographic.

If you already know you want to start a Snap Ads campaign, contact us today and let’s start snapping!

snapchat user base

 

Why your small business should be using Snapchat right now

Have you ever wondered how some people (and brands) became famous on Instagram or YouTube? Many gained fame simply from being early adopters of the platform. Early adoption can save advertising costs and position your business as a thought leader (or industry leader) in the space. But you’ll have to hurry, opportunity to be among the first of your competitors there will disappear fast.

Snapchat is inherently different, of course, than platforms like YouTube and Facebook as driving organic traffic is not as simple as dropping a link in a post. Though Snap ads have the ability to swipe to visit a web page, organic Snapchat is more a game of branding, storytelling and engaging an audience than grabbing a quick sale. Don’t be afraid of the ROI in Snapchat investment though, check out these statistics for comfort.

snapchat daily usage statistics

Source: https://www.snapchat.com/ads

Here’s the bottom line:

If you market a product or service to millennials, don’t have a massive marketing budget, and want to position your brand to succeed long term, you should give Snapchat some serious thought because it’s not just a social media platform–it’s a growing media company.

Several patents filed that confirm Snapchat’s intent to develop its own eCommerce platform. Snapchat’s API is opening up to advertisers and they’ve entered the world of consumer products with their Spectacles product. If you consider the example of Facebook, what started as a social media platform has become a media giant; you can start to see the trajectory Snapchat may be on and fortune has long favored those who get in at the ground level.

 

How you can build your small business’s brand on Snapchat

Numerous articles have been written on the basics of using Snapchat. If you don’t know how it works and don’t have a trendy millennial at your company to help you, check out this article for Snapchat basics and this one for some fun tips. If you have more questions, you can always give us a call as well.

 

You need to create a solid foundation

It’s not by mistake that Snapchat calls them stories; for businesses, the platform is all about telling a compelling story about your brand. What makes your brand unique? How can you provide value to your followers? Gone are the days of consumers accepting intrusions into their lives. Successful businesses now engage their followers and Snapchat gives companies the unique opportunity to help their consumers pull back the curtains and get a peek at the people and voice behind the brand.

 

How to make your Snaps not suck

Let’s talk about a couple overarching ideas first:

The focus on this platform is telling a story. Some advertising brains will hold onto the direct sales model, but Snapchat embraces a different ideal: Engage an audience and make them want to purchase–not tell them they need to. Though a little off of the mainstream advertising concept, brands have been increasingly successful with this storytelling model over the past year.

When we talk about developing your brand on Snapchat, we’re talking about the tone and style of your Snaps. The best way to figure this out is to experiment with some of the different ideas we’ll talk about below. Then, let your audience decide what it likes by tracking your completion rate (just wait, we’re getting there), and when you find a tone and style that your audience engages with, stick with that.

 

These two metrics are the most important (and really the only ones for your account)

Views and completion rate. These are the only two metrics you can track for your company’s organic Snapchat efforts. One way of tracking effectiveness is checking your completion rate–the number of people who begin viewing your story vs. the number of people who watch it through to completion.

Here’s how:

snapchat completion rate

 

At Wallaroo Media, we’ve jumped on the Snapchat express as early as possible and have helped dozens of brands begin to build their following and establish their share of the Snap-sphere. Below are 6 things we’ve done to help companies become successful on the rapidly growing platform:

1) USE SNAPCODES ANYWHERE AND EVERYWHERE

Snapchat lacks the robust search functions inherent in other social platforms. This means that you may have to get a tad creative to get your audience to find and connect with you. Snapcodes’s are Snapchat’s easiest function for adding new people to their Snap address books. This is a code, unique to Snapchat, that functions as a QR code for the platform that, when snapped, automatically adds the account to the user’s list. We have companies establish the Snapcode as their temporary profile picture on other social media platforms and even print out physical copies of the code to take to trade shows and storefronts to get customers snapping it and joining their Snap community.

Snapchat’s most recent update even allows you to create a unique Snapcode for any URL. This means people can go to your website/blog/whatever without having to leave the app! Leveraging Snapcodes is a great way to promote your account and begin building your following.

 

2) USING CUSTOM GEOFILTERS

Custom Geofilters are a great way to use Snapchat to promote your brand. With a little design ability and some forward-thinking, you can design a filter and have it live for some length of time inside of a Geofence so that when Snapchat users snap photos to each other, your brand or business’s filter can be used as a frame for their photos–unique to their location. Check out our Snaphacking article for a step-by-step guide, but here’s a quick comparison for the cost of a custom geofilter around our office in Provo, UT and VaynerMedia’s office in NYC.
If you’re interested in having us design and launch filters, we’d love to help! Check out That’s a Snap! (one of subsidiary companies) who have become so good, they were even featured in the USA Today.

 

3) TAKEOVERS | INFLUENCERS | SNAPCHAT ARTISTS

Influencers are individuals who have built up a following around a specific niche. Simply spend some time searching to find a Snapchat influencer who has a following in your brand’s niche audience, and then reach out! See what they can do to expose their audience to your organization.

But remember, most influencers run their accounts as part of their living. This means that you should expect to discuss a budget with them and compensate them for their time. This cost is variable and depends on the size of the influencer’s following and the number and type of mentions you’d like on their accounts.

Check out Mplatco and Shonduras for a taste of what great influencers can create!

 

4) GIVEAWAYS & SCAVENGER HUNTS

The visual nature of Snapchat (as well as the disappearing messages format) gives a lot of opportunity for businesses to get a little inventive. We have run more than on giveaway and scavenger hunt through Snapchat that have led to great results. Check out this one by Delta Airlines. Millennials are an audience of adventurers, so feel free to tap into that side of them with a little creative adventure of your own.

 

5) SHOOT WEEKLY CONTENT “EPISODES”

Picture these as something like really short television shows. Find something that connects with your audience and plan some video content around it each week. Standardize your day and time so viewers know when to “tune in” to catch the next episode of your content. This can be a great way to tell an elongated story or narrative, or even create a fun video series or how-to sessions.  Fuse TV does a great job of this, even using custom graphics with built-in advertising that they upload to the beginning and end of their segments.

 

6) SNAPCHAT SPECTACLES

These sunglasses represent Snapchat’s jump into the retail camera world as the company’s first consumer product. They were released specifically for Snapchat, shoot 110-degree circular video so your community can watch your stories vertically or horizontally and can post directly to your Snap account. Right now the only way to get a pair is from a SnapBot or eBay, but once secured, they can open up your organization’s Snap game. Check out the creative storytelling of Sam Sheffer and Chris Monachino using Spectacles.

 

Snapchat can be intimidating if you’re not familiar with the platform. We hope this piece has opened your eyes to the possibilities on how you can promote your brand with Snapchat! And, if you need a little help or want to get into the world of paid Snapchat advertising for even greater reach, contact us today for a free consultation!

snap ads management

Facebook Makes Some Tweaks to Its Newsfeed Algorithm

Facebook Updates Its Algorithm and Prepares to Come to Your Television…

Facebook announced a few updates to its newsfeed algorithm yesterday:

  • Videos will play with the sound on by default in the News Feed. This change comes after Facebook A/B tested videos with the sound on by default in recent months and reportedly received “positive feedback.”
  • Vertical videos will automatically expand to fill the full screen (another copy of Snapchat). This is change is likely meant to encourage people to shoot & upload videos from their phones, with an emphasis on vertical video.
  • Videos can keep playing in a little thumbnail at the bottom of your screen while you browse the News Feed. Facebook has already tested this feature with a subset of its users, but now it’s rolling out to everyone.
  • Facebook’s TV app will be available “soon” on the Apple TV, Amazon Fire TV, and Samsung Smart TVs, with more devices to follow.

Facebook is obviously putting an emphasis on video, both encouraging users to create and share, and to watch as well. The company recently announced it is allowing content creators show mid-roll ads in their videos, and they are also working on funding their own scripted video shows.

Zuckerberg recently described video as a “mega-trend” similar to how mobile phones contributed to Facebook’s early growth. Facebook’s thinking is that, if it can get people to watch more videos, it can further tap into the $70 billion brand advertising budgets that are normally reserved for TV shows. The recent newsfeed updates, along with Facebook’s plan to launch a standalone app for televisions, illustrates their focus here.

As a company, you should be focusing on creating video content. Video content that can be shared on Facebook, Snapchat, Instagram, and Pinterest. The same video content can also be repurposed for YouTube, Vimeo, and your blog.

Need help with a video strategy? Contact us today!

Snapchat Users Watch Brand Stories 90% Of The Time

Snapchat Users are Highly Engaged in Brand Content, Study Finds

Snaplytics, an analytics platform for Snapchat, just released a 27-page report today. The report outlines how brands use Snapchat, how users engage with content, and what users share. The data was gathered during Q4 2016 and is based on accounts from 500 different brands, 217,000 pieces of content, and 24,000 stories.

The most important finding from the report is this: when a user watches a brand’s story, they watch the entire story about 90 percent of the time. That is an incredibly high number.

Snapchat is known for not giving users or brands much data about the performance of their content. But the report’s findings give us a slightly better idea about how the social content is consumed. Snaplytics found that 55 percent of an account’s followers watch the user’s stories and 88 percent—up from 85 percent during the second quarter—watch all of a story, equivalent to a completion rate. For context, Facebook experiences an ad-completion rate for videos that’s south of 20 percent, according to a study by Salesforce.

Furthermore, video makes up 61 percent of all content posted by users and brands, while photos represent the other 39 percent.

Want to learn more about Snap Ads? Click here.

Want to get started with a Snapchat advertising campaign of your own? Contact us today!

snap ads management

Some Quick SEO Hits

Google is up to something…

Last week, around February 6-8, the temperatures were scorching according to Moz’s tool “Mozcast”. Mozcast is a tool that tracks turbulence in Google’s algorithm. The hotter and stormier the weather, the more Google’s rankings have changed. Take a look at last week, which is the peak to the right of the image below.

google algo update february 7 2017

Google has not confirmed the update, but rankings have been in flux, both good and bad. Take a look at the rankings for the popular social network Reddit…

reddit seo google penalty

We are still looking into what this could be. We’ll update you as soon as we have more information.

Also, a fun “Did You Know” reminder from Gary Illyes at Google yesterday: “DYK if you read out loud the text on your page and it doesn’t sound natural, that piece of text may weigh much less during ranking.”

So, when writing content on your site, don’t “write for SEO”. Make it natural.